RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Local backlash over Aer Lingus threat Population of Mid West region increased by more than 3,000 in past year TAGSCommunityInterviewNewsProfileSportSports ArenaUniversity of Limerick Print Twitter Shannon Airport braced for a devastating blow Previous articleBig game this Sunday: Win a Golden Ticket for trip to the iconic Tipp Classical FestivalNext articleREVIEW – Godzilla: King of the Monsters David Raleigh Advertisement Limerick on Covid watch list Vicky calls for right to die with dignity NewsCommunitySportUL’s good sport hangs up the training shoesBy David Raleigh – June 8, 2019 402 Housing 37 Compulsory Purchase Orders issued as council takes action on derelict sites Linkedin Dave Mahedy UL ArenaHE’S coached rugby stars from Bruff, guided city soccer to the Bernabéu, and brought hurling glory to Ballybrown.And, while Jose Mourinho may have coined himself the ‘Special One’ — in Limerick, Dave Mahedy would be deserving of such an accolade.Unlike Mourinho, Mahedy lacks ego; It’s been an extra weapon in his unique coaching armoury that has seen him secure silverware across sporting codes.Sign up for the weekly Limerick Post newsletter Sign Up However, after nearly half a century developing Limerick sport, maestro Mahedy is hanging up his boots, sort of.With “retirement looming on the horizon anyway” the 63-year old Dublin native is set to retire from his post as Director of Sport at University of Limerick.He tells the Limerick Post he wants to depart while still “at the top” of his game.Mahedy’s fingerprints can be traced on some of Limerick’s greatest sporting moments — from whence the die was cast in the late 70s/early 80s, when he and Eoin Hand coached Limerick United to their last League and Cup double, and onto Europe facing the mighty Real Madrid, to ensuring world-class training facilities at UL for the likes of UL graduate, Olympian, and European bronze medalist sprinter Thomas Barr.In between all this, Mahedy, adopted son of the Treaty City and County, helped train Munster to European Cup honours; brought Limerick to two Croke Park hurling finals; and steered Shannon Rugby’s famous four-in-a-row.There’s also a League victory with St Pat’s, a team he togged out for as a youth, around the same time he was kicking another round ball, for Kilmacud Crokes, in his active Stillorgan.There was “nothing sinister” in his decision to pass on the baton at UL, he stresses. Parting company had been on his mind “for a couple of years.“I feel now is the right time to hand it over to the next generation,” says Mahedy, who believes he’s “hogged it for long enough.”Mahedy hints a career in sports journalism may be on the cards. He’d “love to work in the media, in radio or writing”.“You never know what’s around the corner,” he says.Looking back on his coaching achievements, he says modestly: “I was in the right place at the right time”. As he says himself, he was “lucky”, but others know there was a little more to it than just luck.It could have been so very different though for Mahedy, and for Limerick.Around the time Munster’s historic victory over the All Blacks, Mahedy, along with Munster star and fellow Dubliner Tony Ward graduated with a Degree from the National Physical Education College, situated on the grounds of what was later christened UL.Mahedy got called for an interview in Dublin “for a PE job”.In the end he didn’t get the position. Dublin’s loss, Limerick’s gain.Ward – who was launching his own sports store at the time in Limerick – called Mahedy back to manage the Thomas Street premises.“Neither of us had any knowledge of retail,” jokes Mahedy.“And, the rest is history.” Not quite.Mahedy began engineering his own success story, just as 50 years previously his grandfather on his mother’s side was helping to build Ardnacrusha hydroelectric power station on city’s outskirts.In ‘79 he started “working with Limerick United FC” alongside player-manager Eoin Hand, who later went on to manage the Republic of Ireland.Their successful innings, qualifying for Europe, playing against Real Madrid, Spurs, and United, was during a golden era of soccer in Limerick. It also opened more doors to success.In 1990, after returning to Thomond College as sports facilities manager Mahedy “wrote a wishlist to develop the campus, and, it’s great to say that, about 85 per cent of that has come to fruition,” he says.With the college achieving University status in ‘89, it needed someone to deliver a sports campus to match academic achievements.Mahedy says he’s proud to have developed “a portfolio of top class facilities”. These include the UL Sports Arena; North Campus; the Maguire’s Field project, consisting of two full-sized GAA and or four full-sized soccer synthetics grass pitches; an Outdoor Activity Centre in Killaloe and, Ireland’s first 50-metre Olympic-sized swimming pool.“Some said it couldn’t be done and we’d lose our shirt. We proved them wrong. Everything is in the one spot — a pool, weights, running track, physio, sports science, accommodation and restaurants etc,” he adds.Another “huge achievement” for UL, again spearheaded by Mahedy, was scooping Cork Institute of Technology to win the right to set up the Munster High Performance Training Centre.A host of famous Track and Field stars have also used the facilities.Mahedy obliges, rattling off a few well known names: “Colin Jackson, Kelly Holmes, Paula Radcliffe, and at the moment our own Thomas Barr.“In the very early days you would have had the Frank O’Maras and Ger Hartmans here. Sonia O’Sullivan was on the original UL Arena board of directors too,” he recalls.Mahedy has three grown-up children and lives just stone’s throw from campus.“I’ve never really worked a day in my life, because I love it so much. It’s been an incredible job,” he continues.He also found love here, meeting his Adare wife Kay, who works with special needs children in Lisnagry, while he was “helping to set up Special Olympics in 1979”.Mahedy says it was one of his highlights at UL to host the Special Olympics Ireland Games, in 2010 and 2014. “They were huge events for Limerick and there was a huge personal satisfaction in that,” he says.With further opportunities around the corner, the future looks bright.“The plan, for now, is to “take a little time off and see where that takes me…possibly the media, I’d like that, but they might tell me, ‘it’s not your career, get back into sports management’”.“Maybe I’ll run for mayor,” he jokes. ‘Mahedy for Mayor’ has a certain ring to it. Facebook Email WhatsApp
Facebook0Tweet0Pin0 Submitted by Port of OlympiaPort of Olympia has been working to identify and correct causes of the hydrogen peroxide spill that occurred at the Marine Terminal’s stormwater treatment plant on Jan. 28, 2015. The spill did not result in any chemicals entering Budd Inlet.Immediately following the release of the hydrogen peroxide, the Port had an independent engineering firm assess the cause of the spill and evaluate potential improvements to make the system even safer. The firm found that a non-vented ball valve was the cause of the spill and identified areas where the system can be improved for efficiency and safety.Port staff shared the engineering firm’s report with the Washington Dept of Ecology, which regulates industrial stormwater. Ecology asked the Port to proceed with design of the recommended improvements and the Port issued a contract with the same firm for the design services.The Port’s goal is to have the full treatment system and any recommended improvements on-line in early 2016. In the interim, the Port is maximizing treatment from other portions of the treatment system and used the hydrogen peroxide recovered from the release in the treatment process.State-of-the-Art FacilityPort of Olympia works closely with Ecology to ensure that the Port’s industrial stormwater treatment achieves regulatory requirements for water discharged into Puget Sound. The Port worked closely with its contractors to develop an innovative process to treat pollutants associated with log yard operations.The Port improved and modernized the stormwater treatment facility on the Marine Terminal in 2014. The project included building conveyance piping, treatment ponds, the facility building and systems.Governor Jay Inslee cut the ribbon and addressed Port staff and guests at the grand opening of the modern stormwater treatment facility on December 3, 2014.The construction contract for modernizing the Marine Terminal stormwater treatment system total was $9.9 million. Total construction costs including the contract, administration, engineering and permitting were $11.1 million. Port tenants are contributing to the costs of facility construction and operations.Port’s Commitment to Water QualityThe stormwater management program is a major element of Port of Olympia’s commitment to preventing, reducing and eliminating the discharge of pollutants into Puget Sound. Port staff work closely with tenants and Ecology to minimize the potential for pollutants to enter Budd Inlet from stormwater runoff flowing off impervious surfaces on Port properties.
Facebook19Tweet0Pin0Submitted by City of TumwaterTumwater University brings community members together in an informal classroom-style setting for three evenings of education and engagement. The program is designed so participants (students) have fun and get in the university spirit. Tumwater U offers a classroom experience, curriculum, and faculty comprised of members of local government, elected officials, and City staff. Students earn a diploma and T-shirt at graduation.Become a scholar on all of the important things that make Tumwater a special place to live at Tumwater University. Gain a better understanding of how local government functions, learn about City programs and services, and have a chance to provide input on community priorities.Courses offerings include:Every Vote CountsWhat’s Brewing in Tumwater?Let’s Play the Budget GameCommunity School InitiativeHousing SolutionsFire SafetyScience of Traffic ControlsThere are two field trips options, special guests, and more.Tumwater University will be held at City Hall on three consecutive Monday evenings, March 12, 19, and 26, 2018, from 6:00 p.m. – 9:00 p.m.Registration is available online at City of Tumwater website – Applicants are considered on a first-come, first-served basis until seats are filled. All students must be willing to commit to attending all three nights. For assistance with registration contact David La Garde, Volunteer Coordinator, at [email protected]
Advertisement 51ylynNBA Finals | Brooklyn Vs965sbWingsuit rodeo📽Sindre E3gfb( IG: @_aubreyfisher @imraino ) lpWould you ever consider trying this?😱9lCan your students do this? 🌚3gx3uRoller skating! Powered by Firework Indian youngster Rishabh Pant has been compared with the legendary MS Dhoni ever since his arrival in the national team. But the wicketkeeper strongly disagrees, claiming that he is eager to learn from Dhoni, instead of competing with him. In an interview with Bombay Times, Pant spoke about his career and his relationship with the veteran keeper.Advertisement In answer to the comparison between him and MSD, Pant stated,Advertisement “I do think about the comparison with Dhoni sometimes, but it’s too difficult. If I am learning from him, I can’t possibly think that I can be in his league overnight. I am just trying to learn from him. I consider him my mentor. He has taught me so many things — be it how to work on my batting or mind-set before I go to bat, and most importantly, keeping calm in pressure situations. At 21, if I start thinking that I have to fill Dhoni’s shoes, it will get very difficult for me. I just try to keep it simple. I want to play the game to the best of my ability and learn from everyone around me, especially my seniors.”Since his test debut, the young wicketkeeper-batsman has become a regular face in the squad, performing at the top level frequently. His tons against England and Australia in difficult situations truly proved his class, despite the rumours that he got into the Indian team way too early. And Pant was very clear about his inclusion saying,Advertisement “It’s good for a player to get an early break. Besides, I am not getting anything for free. I have worked hard and earned my place in the Indian cricket team. Nobody has gifted that to me. Koi nahi bolta ke, ‘Bhai team mein aaja’. Aisa nahi hota hai. If you don’t perform well, you won’t be selected. It’s as simple as that. Everyone has to justify their spot in the team.” Advertisement
Click here if you’re unable to view the photo gallery on your mobile device.It didn’t take long for A’s fans to start writing revisionist history on Wednesday.That’s what happens when your team’s starting pitcher in a winner-take-all playoff game goes two innings and allows four runs, effectively torpedoing any chance of victory and ending the team’s season.After something like that it’s easy to second-guess manager Bob Melvin — or more accurately, the A’s front-office, as one has to think …
(Visited 1,019 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0 The fossil of a sea turtle said to be 54 million years old still has original proteins of pigment and muscle.A press release from North Carolina State University drops another bomb on deep time. Even though the researchers, including co-author Mary Schweitzer, do not doubt the age of the fossil at 54 million Darwin Years, that is an awful lot of time for original biomolecules to be preserved.Researchers from North Carolina State University, Lund University in Sweden and the University of Hyogo in Japan have retrieved original pigment, beta-keratin and muscle proteins from a 54 million-year-old sea turtle hatchling. The work adds to the growing body of evidence supporting persistence of original molecules over millions of years and also provides direct evidence that a pigment-based survival trait common to modern sea turtles evolved at least 54 million years ago.That last clause compounds the problem by pushing back a trait earlier than expected. In this case, it is dark coloration, believed to provide camouflage from predators and heat regulation by absorbing sunlight as the hatchling scurried across the sand to the seashore. No evolution is documented, because the adaptive trait was already present!Fossil (left) and modern sea turtle hatchlings. Credit: Johan Lindgren, reproduced from NC State press release (click for link).The fossil was found in Denmark in 2008, but soft tissue remains were not recovered till 2013. Johan Lindgren of Lund University performed multiple tests to analyze the remains. He found organelles he suspected were melanosomes, the structures that provide coloration. He brought in other researchers for further analysis.Lindgren performed ToF-SIMS on the samples to confirm the presence of heme, eumelanin and proteinaceous molecules – the components of blood, pigment and protein.Co-author Mary Schweitzer, professor of biological sciences at NC State with a joint appointment at the North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences, performed histochemical analyses of the sample, finding that it tested positive against antibodies for both alpha and beta-keratin, hemoglobin and tropomyosin, a muscle protein. TEM, performed by University of Hyogo evolutionary biologist Takeo Kuriyama, and Schweitzer’s immunogold testing further confirmed the findings.Schweitzer, in an apparent pre-emptive strike at skeptics, stated that confirmation of these particular proteins rules out contamination, because bacteria don’t make eukaryotic melanin or keratin.The open-access paper was published October 17 in Nature Scientific Reports, DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-13187-5. It calls the specimen “arguably one of the best preserved juvenile fossil sea turtles on record.” Traces of soft tissue were preserved “with great fidelity“, the paper says. What was found was original, unmineralized material.Here we show that the extraordinary preservation of the type of T. danica goes beyond gross morphology to include ultrastructural details and labile molecular components of the once-living animal. Haemoglobin-derived compounds, eumelanic pigments and proteinaceous materials retaining the immunological characteristics of sauropsid-specific β-keratin and tropomyosin were detected in tissues containing remnant melanosomes and decayed keratin plates. The preserved organics represent condensed remains of the cornified epidermis and, likely also, deeper anatomical features, and provide direct chemical evidence that adaptive melanism – a biological means used by extant sea turtle hatchlings to elevate metabolic and growth rates – had evolved 54 million years ago.“…arguably one of the best preserved juvenile fossil sea turtles on record.”The evolutionary speculation and dates are not derived from the observations. It’s important to recall that until recently, no one expected original proteins to survive a hundred thousand years, let alone millions. So how do the researchers explain this “extraordinary preservation” of material in this fossil labeled MHM-K2, that should be long gone?We hypothesise that calcium ions (and other trace elements) adsorbed onto the surface of the carcass during the microbially mediated formation of the calcareous concretion in which MHM-K2 was found. Mild geothermal conditions might then have limited further breakdown of the stabilised organics.Haemoglobin also imparts tissue fixation by iron-catalysed free radical reactions and/or inhibition of bacterial growth (ref.44 and references therein), possibly contributing to preservation of anatomical features deeper than the cornified epidermis. Blood breakdown products released from erythrocytes during hemolysis can seep into surrounding tissues, causing a reddish-brown discolouration. Impregnation by haemoglobin-derived compounds has been recorded not only in bones, but also in scales and teeth. Consequently, it is possible that the outer integument was infiltrated by blood residues diffusing from underlying (and now almost completely degraded) dermal or deeper tissues sometime during the early stages of decomposition of MHM-K2. Detection of haemoglobin- and tropomyosin-derived compounds supports this possibility.The language is cautious, because they can only suggest “possibilities” that “might” explain the preservation. Proteins, however, are delicate molecules subject to thermal breakdown. Stabilizing processes, even if plausible, cannot last indefinitely. But for tens of millions of years? Mark Armitage, who has recovered and analyzed dinosaur soft tissue himself, strongly disputes the ability of blood-derived iron to stabilize soft tissues.Much of the paper sidesteps this important question by speculating about when “adaptive melanism” evolved. But really, does the fossil look any “less evolved” than the living turtle? Why do they give it a different scientific name when it is virtually identical? Did the hatchling really fossilize that long ago?Since dinosaur soft tissues and proteins have been found twice as old as those in this sea turtle (1/29/17), long-age evolutionists are panicking. They are scrambling to downplay the findings (6/09/15, 9/19/17) or pretending soft tissue is exciting because it can shed light on evolution. These are distractions from the danger their worldview is in.The Darwin hot-air balloon can only hold a finite number of fossils with soft tissue before it comes crashing to the ground. Keep piling them up in the gondola. And turn on those video cams, everyone! Let the public see the collapse.
It’s the largest and hottest province in South Africa, taking up a full third of the country’s land area. But the Northern Cape is also wild and empty, mostly desert and semi-desert. Under 2% of South Africa’s people live there.The 60-metre Augrabies Falls on the Orange River. The original Khoikhoi inhabitants named the falls “Ankoerebis”, or “place of big noises”. Later Afrikaner settlers then derived the name “Augrabies”. (Image: South African Tourism, CC BY 2.0, via Flickr)Mary AlexanderIt’s September. It’s spring in South Africa – and Tourism Month, celebrated this year with the theme “Tourism for All”.To inspire your next road trip we bring you nine galleries, one for each province, showcasing our country’s remarkable beauty and diversity.A thriving tourism industry means South Africa is closer to achieving its National Development Plan goals of skills development and creating decent employment through inclusive economic growth.The vast wilderness of the Nortern Cape holds weird lunar landscapes, exotic plants and animals, the Richtersveld World Heritage site and the Big Hole diamond mine, possibly the largest hand-dug excavation in the world.In early spring the barren Namaqualand sees a sudden, brief and brilliant bloom of flowers carpeting the landscape. (Image: South African Tourism, CC BY 2.0, via Flickr)Sister Januar outside the Catholic Cathedral in the Northern Cape town of Pella. (Image: South African Tourism, CC BY 2.0, via Flickr)Arri Raats, a member of the Khomani San Bushmen, at Boesmansrus camp in the Kalahari. (Image: South African Tourism, CC BY 2.0, via Flickr)Canoeing on the Orange River at sunset in Vioolsdrift, in the Richtersveld region of the Northern Cape. The Orange is the longest river in South Africa, rising in the Drakensberg mountains in Lesotho and flowing westwards to empty in the Atlantic Ocean. (Image: South African Tourism, CC BY 2.0, via Flickr)Brilliantly coloured Augrabies flat lizards are endemic to the Northern Cape, and common on the granite walls of Augrabies Falls National Park. In summer they delight tourists with their acrobatic leaps to catch black flies swarming near the falls. (Image: South African Tourism, CC BY 2.0, via Flickr)A seal colony on the rocky shores of the Namaqua National Park. (Image: South African Tourism, CC BY 2.0, via Flickr)Crafts for sale at a tourist market in Pofadder, Northern Cape. (Image: South African Tourism, CC BY 2.0, via Flickr)Donkey cart drivers in Andriesvale in the Kalahari. (Image: South African Tourism, CC BY 2.0, via Flickr)Arnie Braam in Klein Pella, Northern Cape. (Image: South African Tourism, CC BY 2.0, via Flickr)Desert dunes in Witsand – “white sands” – Nature Reserve near Postmasburg in the Northern Cape. (Image: South African Tourism, CC BY 2.0, via Flickr)A farm in Vioolsdrift. Irrigation from the great Orange River and from groundwater allows farmers to produce crops in the desert. (Image: South African Tourism, CC BY 2.0, via Flickr)Quiver trees – kokerboom in Afrikaans – in the Kalahari. San Bushman hunter-gatherers used the trees to make quivers for their arrows. (Image: South African Tourism, CC BY 2.0, via Flickr)The Sutherland Observatory on a starry night. There is little light pollution in the remote Northern Cape, making the province ideal for major international astronomy initiatives such as the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) and the Square Kilometre Array, or SKA. (Image: South African Tourism, CC BY 2.0, via Flickr)Meerkats in the desert of the Kalahari Red Dune Route in the Northern Cape. (Image: South African Tourism, CC BY 2.0, via Flickr)An old shipwreck rusts into the shore of the Namaqua National Park on the West Coast. (Image: South African Tourism, CC BY 2.0, via Flickr)Inside the McGregor Museum, an important cultural and natural history research institute, in Kimberley, the capital of the Northern Cape. (Image: South African Tourism, CC BY 2.0, via Flickr)Palm trees against the late afternoon sun in Klein Pella, on the banks of the Orange River. (Image: South African Tourism, CC BY 2.0, via Flickr)The mountainous desert landscape of the Richtersveld. The region is the only arid biodiversity hotspot on earth, with an amazing variety of plant, bird and animal life. The Richtersveld Cultural and Botanical Landscape is a Unesco World Heritage site. (Image: South African Tourism, CC BY 2.0, via Flickr)The Big Hole in Kimberley, the capital of the Northern Cape, is thought to be the largest hand-dug excavation in the world. Once an open-pit diamond mine, some three metric tons of diamonds were extracted from the hole – displacing 22-million tons of earth – between 1872 and 1914. (Image: South African Tourism, CC BY 2.0, via Flickr)A massive communal sociable weaver bird’s nest envelops an acacia tree in the Kgalakgadi Transfrontier Park in the north of the Northern Cape. (Image: South African Tourism, CC BY 2.0, via Flickr)Steenbok amid indigenous desert vegetation in the Namaqua National Park. (Image: South African Tourism, CC BY 2.0, via Flickr)The local maritime museum in the West Coast town of Port Nolloth. (Image: South African Tourism, CC BY 2.0, via Flickr)A dog sits with its driver as they make their way through Vioolsdrift in the Richtersveld. (Image: South African Tourism, CC BY 2.0, via Flickr)
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest The beef industry has certainly experienced a bit of an economic “roller coaster” over the past few years. The historically high prices for all classes of beef cattle during 2014 and the first half of 2015 encouraged an expansion phase to begin. As beef cattle prices have moderated over the past year, expansion has continued but at a slower pace. The outlook for beef cattle prices for the next several years still remains positive. The current beef economy has created an interesting dynamic where you can hear producers debating the merits of expanding their herds and also merchandising females.Depending on your situation, the current beef economic climate provides a unique opportunity for both buyers and sellers of breeding cattle. Both groups can take advantage of this situation by participating in the upcoming Ohio Cattlemen’s Association fourth annual Replacement Female Sale on Friday evening, Nov. 25. The sale will be held at the Muskingum Livestock facility in Zanesville and will start at 6 p.m.The 2016 Ohio Cattlemen’s Association Replacement Female Sale will provide an opportunity for both buyers and sellers to meet the need for quality replacements in the state. Consignments may include cow-calf pairs, bred cows and bred heifers. Females must be under the age of five as of Jan. 1, 2017 and may be of registered or commercial background. Bred females must be bred to a bull with known EPD’s and calves at side of cows must be sired by a bull with known EPD’s. Pregnancy status must be verified by an accredited veterinarian through traditional palpation, ultrasound or by blood testing through a professional laboratory. Analysis must be performed within 60 days of sale. Consignments will also be fulfilling specific health and identification requirements.I have heard much speculation about the price prospects for bred replacement females for the fall sale season. While I certainly do not possess a crystal ball to give me an insight on future prices, I do believe that we will see solid demand for quality bred heifers and young bred cows. I do believe that the increase in numbers of the nation’s cow herd will allow buyers to be more discriminating and discount lesser quality females. The best data I can provide you for planning purposes is from the first three Ohio Cattlemen’s Association’s Replacement Female Sales. The average selling price for females in the sales is as follows: 2013 — $1,812, 2014 — $2,598, and 2015 — $2,374.Consignments for the sale are due to the Ohio Cattlemen’s Association by October 1, 2016. Sale information can be obtained by contacting the Ohio Cattlemen’s Association at (614) 873-6736 or at their web site located at www.ohiocattle.org . If you have any questions about the sale, you can call me at my office at (740) 289-2071, Extension #242 or contact me by e-mail at [email protected] Please consider this sale as an option for both buyers and sellers to help contribute to the improvement of Ohio’s beef cow herd.
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest Notice is now given that a special meeting of the Ohio Soil and Water Conservation Commission will be held on Aug. 30, 2018 at 10:30 a.m. at the Ohio Department of Agriculture, Auditorium, Bromfield Building, 8995 E. Main St., Reynoldsburg, Ohio, for the following purpose:The Ohio Soil and Water Conservation Commission, Western Lake Erie Basin Watershed In Distress task-force/subcommittee will meet to evaluate the recommendation for declaring eight watersheds within the Western Lake Erie Basin as watersheds in distress.The Ohio Soil and Water Conservation Commission is a seven-member commission which ensures Ohio counties are served by effectively administered and adequately supported soil and water conservation districts.The meeting is open to the public.
Now that you’ve finally learned the (model) code, it’s all different!At long last, after three years of proposed code changes, code hearings, floor votes, public comment period and final action hearings, a new International Residential Code (IRC) is developed and published. You’ve purchased it from the International Code Council and read through it in anticipation of a green-home building project.Now keep in mind, the IRC is just a guide, a model building code, and does not have the force of law until adopted. Normally during this adoption process the jurisdiction will add or subtract code requirements or modify the provisions that better suit that region’s interest. These modifications are usually known as local amendments.The adoption and enforcement at the local level varies across the nation according to each state’s organization and constitution; and whether the state is a “Dillon-rule” or a “home-rule” state. Generally, a Dillon-rule state is said to have complete authority over municipal government except as limited by the state or federal constitution. Because of this complete legislative control, a city or county government’s power is limited and only extends to the following: (1) rule of law (2) implied or incidental and (3) absolutely indispensable.Home rule can defined as letting the city or county enforce the state law. It transfers the authority from the state to the locality. About 40 states are home-rule, and about 10 are Dillon-rule. A Dillon-rule state will, generally (there are exceptions to every rule) have a statewide building code, and a home-rule state will have variations of state and local building codes. So check to determine what building code is enforced in your community.The State of Virginia, for example, is a Dillon-rule state and therefore has a statewide building code called the Uniform Statewide Building Code (USBC). The adoption process for states, cities, or counties, irrespective of the state’s status, usually includes formal steps such as public notification, hearings, and, finally, acceptance. While the adoption process is pretty much the same nationwide, the changes themselves vary according to the locality or region.As much as the IRC is written to be a national standard, unique geographic or political influences tend to have an effect on the code. For instance, New Mexico and areas of Arizona have significant amendments to regulate earthen construction; adobe and rammed earth. Virginia has stair geometry with steeper inclines that the IRC permits. Almost 100 cities have green-building programs adopted that modify the code. There may be more restrictive requirements such as mandatory fire suppression systems for all homes, as in Scottsdale, Arizona. There may be a reduced requirement or even importation one or more of the appendices into the body of the code.Generally, the administrative provisions are changed to match the state law for permits, code violations, penalties, and such. It is important to have the model code itself, since these amendments are limited to the changes and not the bulk of the code itself.Be sure to check with your locality before designing a green home, getting a permit or calling for inspections. Things could be different than you’d expect! For example, there may be materials (like straw bale or adobe) that are permitted at the locality. There may be height or size limits on other materials, such as insulated concrete forms.